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Open Access

What is Green Open Access?

Green OA is when an approved version of a publication is made open access in an institutional repository, such as Deakin Research Online (DRO). This is also called the author self-archiving model.

Most journal publishers allow the author's accepted manuscript to be deposited into DRO. Some book publishers also allow this for accepted manuscripts or publisher's PDFs of book chapters. An embargo period is usually required and will be managed by the DRO team.

Advantages of Green OA in DRO

No cost

  • There are no fees or charges associated with making your research Green OA through DRO.

Greater exposure

  • By providing free access to your research, you make your work more accessible and allow it to have greater exposure and impact.

Increased citations

  • Research released as Green OA benefits the most from the 'Open Access Citation Advantage'. Piwowar et al., (2018) note Green OA articles are cited 33% more than average.

More discoverable

  • Publications in DRO are discoverable via Google, Trove, and other search engines.


  • DRO staff ensure compliance with copyright, embargo periods, and other publisher policies.

How to make your research open access in DRO

If you are a Deakin researcher, you can pursue Green OA for your research by depositing copies with DRO using the Elements platform. It is best to provide both the publisher's PDF and author's accepted manuscript (see below). DRO staff will comply with copyright and publisher policies to make one of these versions OA, if possible.

To submit a publication to DRO for possible open access:

  1. Locate the publication in Elements and click 'Deposit'.
  2. From the Deposit page:
    • Upload the final published version of the article.
    • Upload the author's accepted manuscript (details below).
    • For non-traditional research outputs, follow the deposit advice in Elements.
  3. Add your Grant ID in the Elements record's Labels box, if applicable.

Detailed instructions are available on completing the deposit process. There is also a video demonstration.

Once you've deposited the publication, DRO staff will:

  • Check if the publication is already open access (e.g. Gold OA with a Creative Commons licence).
  • If it is not already OA, check if the publisher permits Green OA in institutional repositories.
  • If permitted, make the accepted manuscript OA after any embargo expires.
  • Comply with any other publisher conditions, such as a specific acknowledgement statement
  • Attach a coversheet to the manuscript, complete with the final citation and a link the published article


If an appropriate version is not supplied, or the publisher does not permit Green OA, then DRO will contain a citation-only record. This will provide publication details and link to the work's online location.


Versions of a traditional research publication

diagram moving through the stages of a research publication. author versions: submitted manuscript (pre-print); [peer review and revisions]; accepted manuscript (post-print) - deposit this for possible Green OA. publisher's versions, after copyediting, typesetting, formatting: in-press version (some journals only); published version (publisher's PDF) - deposit this for possible Gold OA in DRO.

Image created by Deakin University Library. CC BY. Download PDF version.

Author versions

Submitted manuscript (or pre-print)

The version first sent to the publisher for review; not refereed.

Accepted manuscript (or post-print)

The author's final version, responding to peer reviewer comments, but before the publisher's final copyediting, typesetting and formatting.

  • If you don't already have a copy of this version, you may need to ask the first or corresponding author of a multi-authored paper. If you submitted the paper using an online system, you may be able to use this platform to export the accepted manuscript or post-print version.
  • Deposit this for possible Green OA

    Many publishers allow the accepted manuscript to be Green OA in DRO. Deposit in Word or PDF format (without comments or track changes).

Publisher versions

In-press version

An early publisher version that may appear on the publisher's website before the final version. Typically includes the publisher's copyediting, fonts, typesetting, and formatting, but without final pagination.

Published version (or publisher's PDF)

The final version available on the publisher's website. Also called the version of record (VoR).

  • Deposit this for possible Green or Gold OA

    Some publishers allow Green OA deposit of the published version. If the research was published Gold OA, DRO will link to the OA version.

Green Open Access for different research outputs

Journal content

Articles, reviews, and similar content published in academic journals can often be made Green OA. Most journals allow the accepted manuscript to be made OA in DRO.

There are also a many OA journals and 'hybrid' journals publishing Gold OA content, which can be deposited in DRO.



You can check a journal's open access and deposit policies using the SHERPA/RoMEO database.


Books follow a different publishing model to journals and seldom allow Green OA in DRO. Some book publishers permit authors to pay a fee to make their work Gold OA. Books are only made OA in DRO if the entire book was published Gold OA and carries express permission for reuse, such as a Creative Commons licence.

Book chapters

Some publishers permit deposit of a single chapter of a book in DRO, where it can be Green OA after an embargo period. This will be either the accepted manuscript or the published version, depending on the publisher's policies. As with books, some publishers permit authors to pay a fee to make a chapter Gold OA.

Artworks, performances, audio/video recordings, exhibitions, etc.

In most cases, the creator(s) will own copyright in works of an artistic nature. By default, DRO does not make these works open access to avoid impinging on potential revenue for the creator(s). If you would like your work to be OA in DRO, please contact DRO Support.

Creative writing

Whether creative writing can be made OA will depend on who owns copyright and the nature of the original publishing agreement. Creative writing is not made OA in DRO by default, but if you would like your work made OA, contact DRO Support.


Reports may be made OA depending on who owns the copyright. DRO has permission to republish reports from some organisations. If the report is publicly available online, the DRO record will link to the online copy. If it is not available elsewhere, DRO will likely be unable to make it available.


Non-traditional research outputs (NTROs) resulting from ARC grants are subject to the same open access requirements as traditional research outputs. They must be made openly accessible within 12 months of publication or presentation. See our ARC Open Access Policy page for more information, or contact DRO Support.