Artifact / Artefact
A material object, typically created for a particular purpose. In the context of research it can be an object, such as an image, tool, art work etc. or a document, for example, one that is religious or historical. In other words, a physical object that may be the focus of all, or part of, the research.
Describes the process of carefully and systematically examining research literature and scientific studies to judge their trustworthiness as well as their value and relevance in a particular context.
This effect is often found in social research where the researcher/observer becomes an influence on the behaviour of the subjects (usually unintentionally). For example the subjects' behaviour may change simply because they know they are being observed, or they may change their behaviour to 'please' the observer/researcher. It can be difficult to avoid this effect, therefore studies often acknowledge the Hawthorne Effect or report any observed effect the researcher's presence had on the outcome of the study.
The specific approach to collecting your data which could include interviews, surveys, focus groups, experiments, case studies, observational studies, online data collection.
The theoretical framework that supports the methods chosen for data collection. Examples are phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, narrative enquiry, action research etc.
A method that allows researchers to infer information about a population based on results from a subset of the population, without having to investigate every individual.