In a Case-Control study there are two groups of people: one has a health issue (Case group), and this group is “matched” to a Control group without the health issue based on characteristics like age, gender, occupation. In this study type, we can look back in the patient’s histories to look for exposure to risk factors that are common to the Case group, but not the Control group. It was a case-control study that demonstrated a link between carcinoma of the lung and smoking tobacco. These studies estimate the odds between the exposure and the health outcome, however they cannot prove causality. Case-Control studies might also be referred to as retrospective or case-referent studies.
This diagram represents taking both the case (disease) and the control (no disease) groups and looking back at their histories to determine their exposure to possible contributing factors. The researchers then determine the likelihood of those factors contributing to the disease.
(FOR ACCESSIBILITY: A case control study is likely to show that most, but not all exposed people end up with the health issue, and some unexposed people may also develop the health issue)
Case-Control studies are best used for Prognosis questions.
For example: Do anticholinergic drugs increase the risk of dementia in later life?
(See BMJ Case-Control study Anticholinergic drugs and risk of dementia: case-control study)
* Confounding occurs when the elements of the study design invalidate the result. It is usually unintentional. It is important to avoid confounding, which can happen in a few ways within Case-Control studies. This explains why it is lower in the hierarchy of evidence, superior only to Case Studies.
A strong study will have:
To assist with critically appraising case control studies there are some tools / checklists you can use.
Doll, R., & Hill, A. B. (1950). Smoking and carcinoma of the lung; preliminary report. British Medical Journal, 2(4682), 739–748. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2038856/
Greenhalgh, Trisha. How to Read a Paper: the Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/deakin/detail.action?docID=1642418.
Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library. (2019). Study Design 101: Case-Control Study. Retrieved from https://himmelfarb.gwu.edu/tutorials/studydesign101/casecontrols.cfm
Hoffmann, T., Bennett, S., & Del Mar, C. (2017). Evidence-Based Practice Across the Health Professions (Third edition. ed.): Elsevier.
Lewallen, S., & Courtright, P. (1998). Epidemiology in practice: case-control studies. Community Eye Health, 11(28), 57. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1706071/
Pelham, B. W. a., & Blanton, H. (2013). Conducting research in psychology : measuring the weight of smoke /Brett W. Pelham, Hart Blanton (Fourth edition. ed.): Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Rees, A.-M., Austin, M.-P., Owen, C., & Parker, G. (2009). Omega-3 deficiency associated with perinatal depression: Case control study. Psychiatry Research, 166(2), 254-259. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165178107004398
Richardson, K., Fox, C., Maidment, I., Steel, N., Loke, Y. K., Arthur, A., … Savva, G. M. (2018). Anticholinergic drugs and risk of dementia: case-control study. BMJ, 361, k1315. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k1315.abstract
Statistics How To. (2019). Case-Control Study: Definition, Real Life Examples. Retrieved from https://www.statisticshowto.com/case-control-study/