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Researching Case Law

What is 'medium neutral citation'?

Medium neutral citation was developed to cope with the delivery medium of the internet, The old way of citing was based on describing something published in the book format. Medium neutral citation doesn't depend on the medium of publication to make sense.

Medium neutral citations tells you that the case is published on the internet.

Medium neutral citation:

  • refers to a court, rather than a reporting series
  • uses a court-assigned number to identify the case rather than a volume and page number
  • uses paragraph numbers rather than page numbers for pinpoint references, eg. when quoting directly from a case in an assignment.

The basic formula for medium neutral citation is covered by rule 2.3.1 of AGLC4.

A case cited in medium neutral format would look like this:

Baker v The Queen [2010] VSCA 226, [13].


AGLC4 Part II: Domestic Sources - 2 Cases

2.1 Reported Cases

Example

Hongan v Hinch (2011) 243 CLR 506 ,512 .
  Lodge v Lawton  [1978]   VR 112 ,115 .

Element

Case Name Year Volume Law Report Series Starting Page Pinpoint Full stop

Rule

2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 1.1.4

 

Other Examples:

Pinpoint: Gerhardy v Brown (1985) 195 CLR 70, 71.

Case Citation: Babic v The Queen (2010) 203 A Crim R 543.

Case Citation: Ireland v Haesler [1959] VR 4.

Melbourne University Law Review Association, Australian Guide to Legal Citation (Melbourne University Law Review Association, 3rd ed, 2010) 37.


AGLC4 Part II: Domestic Sources - 2.3 Unreported Decisions

2.3.1 Unreported Decisions - Decisions with a Medium Neutral Citation

Example

R v De Gruchy [2006] VSCA 10 ,[4]-[5] .

Element

Case Name Year Unique Court Identifier Judgment Number *Pinpoint Full stop

Rule

2.1 2.2 2.3.1 2.3.1 1.1.6-1.1.7 1.1.4

 

* There is a comma before any pinpoint(s).

Other Examples:

Pinpoint:

Nichia Corporation v Arrow Electronics Australia Pty Ltd [2019] FCAFC 2, [11].

Case Citation:

Mazukkov v University of Tasmania [2004] TASADT 8.

Melbourne University Law Review Association, Australian Guide to Legal Citation (Melbourne University Law Review Association, 4th ed, 2018) 54.


AGLC4 Part II: Domestic Sources - 2.3.2 [Unreported] Decisions without a Medium Neutral Citation

2.3.2 [Unreported] Decisions without a Medium Neutral Citation

Example

Ross v Chambers (Supreme Court of the Northern Territory,  Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956)  77-8 .

Element

Case Name Court Judge(s) Name Full Date Pinpoint Full stop

Rule

2.1 2.3.1 2.4.1 1.11.1 1.1.6-1.1.7 1.1.4

 

Other Examples:

Pinpoint:

Barton v Chibber (Supreme Court of Victoria, Hempel J, 29 June 1989) 3.

Case Citation:

Williams v State Bank of New South Wales (Supreme Court of New South Wales, Young J, 7 April 1993).

Melbourne University Law Review Association, Australian Guide to Legal Citation (Melbourne University Law Review Association, 4th ed, 2018) 56-7.